Topics in the Economic and Social History of Turkey:
Social Welfare and Politics in Turkish History
This course analyzes the politics of social welfare in Turkish history. We start with contemporary debates on the crisis of welfare state. The crisis of welfare state since the late 1980s and post-modern epistemologies as the informing theoretical framework for historical studies invigorated a reconsideration of the established paradigms in the field of social policy and welfare. The course examines these new historiographical discourses and their political implications, liberal as well as radical. After these introductory discussions we focus primarily on historical studies on western Europe, Ottoman Empire, and Republican period.
This course aims to provide the students with a theoretical and historical background on social welfare and politics. Though most of the readings are from European historiography, students are encouraged to compile their own bibliographies pertinent to Turkish history and formulate short research projects with a relationship to the issues we are going to discuss in the discussion sessions. Depending on their major field students may also formulate research projects related to current social problems and policies in Turkey.
This course meets once a week for three hours. The seminar is organized around common readings as the basis for weekly discussions. One or two sessions will be devoted to paper presentations and peer critique.
Research Paper: Each student will write a research paper of at least 2,000 words. Paper topics should be chosen to reflect a relationship to one of the discussion sessions in the course. This will help to reduce preparatory reading. Students are encouraged to use ‘primary sources’ as the basis of their research. Students should submit a paper topic during week 4-5.
Oral Presentation: Each student will present a summary of his or her research paper in one of the last two sessions.
THEME 1: PAST AND FUTURE OF WELFARE STATE:
Jürgen Habermas, “The New Obscurity: The Crisis of the Welfare State and the Exhaustion of Utopian Energies,” in Jürgen Habermas, The New Conservatism, Cultural Criticism and the Historian’s Debate, Cambridge Massachusetts: The MIT Press, 1989, pp.48-70.
J. Krieger, “Social Policy in the Age of Reagan and Thatcher,” Socialist Register 1987 (London: 1987), 177-98.
Esping-Andersen, Gosta. “The Three Political Economies of Welfare State.” In The Three Worlds of Welfare Capitalism, 9-34. Princeton-New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 1990.
Esping-Andersen, Gosta. “Towards the Good Society, Once Again?” In Why We Need a New Welfare State. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002., edited by Gosta Esping-Andersen, Duncan Gallie Gallie, Anton Hemerijk and John Myers, 1-25. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002.
Peter Flora, “Solution or Source of Crisis? The Welfare State in Historical Perspective,” in W.J. Mommsen (ed.), The Emergence of the Welfare State in Britain and Germany, London: Croom Helm, 1981, pp.343-389.
Gaston V. Rimlinger, “Comments on Professor Peter Flora’s Analytical Perspective of the Welfare State,” in W.J.
Mommsen (ed.), The Emergence of the Welfare State in Britain and Germany, pp.390-394.
THEME 2: THE HISTORICAL FOUNDATIONS OF WELFARE STATE:
Derek Fraser, “The English Poor Law and the Origins of the British Welfare State,” in W.J. Mommsen (ed.), The Emergence of the Welfare State in Britain and Germany, London: Croom Helm, 1981, pp.9-31.
Jürgen Tampke, “Bismarck’s Social Legislation: a Genuine Breakthrough?” in Derek Fraser, “The English Poor Law and the Origins of the British Welfare State,” in W.J. Mommsen (ed.), The Emergence of the Welfare State in Britain and Germany, pp.71-83.
George Steinmetz, Regulating the Social. The Welfare State and Local Politics in Imperial Germany, Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 1993. Chapter 2: “Toward an Explanation of the Welfare State in Nineteenth-Century Germany,” pp.41-54.
THEME 3: GENDER AND THE ORIGINS OF WELFARE STATES/WESTERN EUROPE:
Seth Koven and Sonya Michel, “Introduction: ‘Mother Worlds’”, in Seth Koven and Sonya Michel (eds.), Mothers of a New World, Maternalist Politics and the Origins of Welfare States, New York & London: Routledge, 1993, pp.1-42.
Jean H. Quataert, “Woman’s Work and the Early Welfare State in Germany: Legislators, Bureaucrats, and Clients Before the First World War,” in Seth Koven and Sonya Michel (eds.), Mothers of a New World, pp.159-187.
Kathleen Canning, “Social Policy, Body Politics: Recasting the Social Question in Germany, 1875-1900,” in Laura L. Reader and Sonya O. Rose (eds.), Gender and Class in Modern Europe, Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1996, pp.211-237.
Kathryn Kish Sklar, “The Historical Foundations of Women’s Power in the Creation of the American Welfare State, 1830-1930,” in Seth Koven and Sonya Michel (eds.), Mothers of a New World, pp.43-93.
THEME 4: PHILANTHROPY, CHARITY and BENEVOLENCE:
Martin Daunton, “Introduction,” in Martin Daunton, ed., Charity, Self-Interest and Welfare in the English Past (New York: St.Martin’s Press, 1996), 1-22.
Colin Jones, “Some recent trends in the history of charity,” in Martin Daunton, ed., Charity, Self-Interest and Welfare in the English Past (New York: St.Martin’s Press, 1996), 51-63.
Joanna Innes, “State, Church and Voluntarism in European Welfare, 1690-1850.” In Charity, Philanthropy and Reform, From the 1690s to 1850, ed. Hugh Cunningham and Joanna Innes, 15-65. New York: St.Martin’s Press, 1998.
Prochaska, F.K. “Philanthropy.” In Cambridge Social History of Britain, 1750-1950: Social Agencies and Institutions, edited by F.M.L. Thompson. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990.
Sandra Cavallo, “The Motivations of Benefactors: An Overview of Approaches to the Study of Charity,” in Jonathan Barr and Colin Jones (ed.), Medicine and Charity Before the Welfare State, London & New York: Routledge, 1991, pp.46-62.
Lindenmeyr, Adele. Poverty is not a Vice: Charity, Society and the State in Imperial Russia. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1996.
Chapter 6: From Charity to Philanthropy; Private Charitable Associations and the Origins of Civil Society, pp.99-141.
Özbek, Nadir. “Imperial Gifts and Sultanic Legitimation During the Reign of Sultan Abdulhamid II, 1876-1909.” In Poverty and Charity in the Middle Eastern Contexts, edited by Mine Ener, Amy Singer and Michael Bonner, 203-20. Albany: State University of New York Press, 2003.
Ener, Mine. “The Charity of the Khedive.” In Poverty and Charity in Middle Eastern Contexts, edited by Michael Bonner, Mine Ener and Amy Singer, 185-202. Albany: State University of New York Press.
Cihan Tugal, Caring for the Poor: Islamic and Christian Benevolence in a Liberal World (forthcoming book).
THEME 5: SOCIAL WELFARE IN THE LATE OTTOMAN EMPIRE:
Halil İnalcık, “The Ottoman State: A Welfare State,” in Halil İnalcık, An Economic and Social History of the Ottoman Empire, v.1, 1300-1600, Cambridge University Press, 1994, pp.45-48.
Miriam Hoexter, “Waqf Studies in the Twentieth Century: The State of the Art.” Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient 41/4 (1998): 474-495.
Özbek, Nadir. “Vakıf Tarihi Çalışmaları Üzerine Notlar.” Tarih ve Toplum 32, no. 187 (1999): 60-62.
Nadir Özbek, “The Politics of Poor Relief in the Late Ottoman Empire, 1876-1914,” New Perspectives on Turkey, 21 (Fall 1999): 1-33.
Nadir Özbek, “Osmanlı İmparatorluğu’nda Sosyal Yardım Uygulamaları: 1839-1918,” Toplum ve Bilim, 83, Kış 1999/2000, pp.111-132.
THEME 6: THE POLITICS OF SOCIAL WELFARE IN REPUBLICAN TURKEY, PAST AND PRESENT:
Buğra, Ayşe. “Poverty and Citizenship: An Overview of the Social-Policy Environment in Republican Turkey.” International Journal of Middle East Studies 39 (2007): 33-52.
Kathy Libal, “The Children’s Protection Society: Nationalizing Child Welfare in Early Republican Turkey,” New Perspectives on Turkey, 23 (Fall 2000), pp. 53-78.
Özbek, Nadir. “Osmanlı’dan Günümüze Türkiye’de Sosyal Devlet.” Toplum ve Bilim, no. 92 (2002): 7-33.
Özbek, Nadir. Cumhuriyet Türkiyesi’nde Sosyal Güvenlik ve Sosyal Politikalar. İstanbul: Tarih Vakfı, Emeklilik Gözetim Merkezi, 2006.
Karpat, Kemal. The Gecekondu: Rural Migration and Urbanization. London: Cambridge University Press, 1976.
Pınarcıoğlu, Melih, and Oğuz Işık. “Not Only Helpless but also Hopeless: Changing Dynamics of Urban Poverty in Turkey, the Case of Sultanbeyli, Istanbul.” European Planning Studies 16, no. 10 (2008): 1353-70.
Pınarcıoğlu, Melih, and Oğuz Işık. “Segregation in Istanbul: Patterns and Processes.” Tijdschrift voor Economische en Sociale Geografie 100, no. 4 (2009): 469-84.
Özbek, Nadir. “Refah Devletinin Krizi, Yeni Sosyal Politika Önerileri ve ‘Temel Gelir’ Üzerine Düşünceler.” Mesele Kitap Dergisi, no. 11 (2007): 43-46.
Buğra, Ayşe, and Çağlar Keyder, eds. Sosyal Politika Yazıları. İstanbul: İletişim Yayınları, 2006.
Buğra, Ayşe. Kapitalizm, Yoksulluk ve Türkiye’de Sosyal Politika. İstanbul: İletişim Yayınları, 2008.
Buğra, Ayşe, and Çağlar Keyder, eds. Bir Temel Hak Olarak Vatandaşlık Gelirine Doğru. İstanbul: İletişim Yayınları, 2007.
Metin, Onur. “Sosyal Politika Açısından AKP Dönemi: Sosyal Yardım Alanında Yaşananlar.” Çalışma ve Toplum 2011, no. 1 (2011): 179-200.
Uzun, Ayşe Meral. “Yoksulluk Olgusu ve Dünya Bankası.” Cumhuriyet Üniversitesi İktisadi ve İdari Bilimler Dergisi 4, no. 2 (2003): 155-73.